Tuesday, December 12, 2000

Everything You Wanted to Know about E, F & G, But Never Dared/Cared to Ask!

Everything You Wanted to Know about E, F & G, But Never Dared/Cared to Ask!

Unseen (70 p) + Listening (30 p)
Unseen (60 p) + Composition (40 p)
Unseen (60 p) + Composition (40 p)

A.    Access to Information from a Written Text - Unseens

General Tips
  1. You can understand how the unseen is organized by using three kinds of clues:
    TOPIC SENTENCES – express the main idea in the paragraph, so they often appear at the beginning or the end of the paragraph.
    CONNECTORS – help you understand the logic and organization of the text – cause & effect, compare & contrast, generalization & examples, sequence of events. Circle them in order to answer the questions more quickly.
    VISUAL CLUES / EYE CATCHERS – such as titles, headings, sub-headings, names, numbers, website addresses, different fonts, tables, illustrations. Underline them in order to relate to them when answering the questions.
  2. Words or phrases are often defined in the text between dashes (מקפים) or by a few examples. However, use the dictionary when certain words prevent you from understanding the texts or the questions. NEVER answer a question without understanding all the words!  
  3. ALWAYS base your answer on the lines mentioned in the question! If no lines are specified base your answer on the whole text.
  4. Follow instructions! If the question asks for ONE example / reason / answer, don’t give two! Do not write more than necessary – more is NOT better!

What You Need to Know!

Question Types

1. Multiple-choice
* There are 2 types of multiple-choice questions: First, to choose one correct answer out of four.
Second, to choose two correct answers out of six.
* Always choose the BEST answer / answers.
* The correct answer is always paraphrased – the same idea is written in different words.

2. True / False with justification
* This type of question consists of two parts: First, decide if the statement is TRUE/FALSE or YES/NO according to the text. Second, copy a phrase (a few words) or a sentence to support your answer. If the one part is wrong and the other is correct, NO POINTS ARE GIVEN.
* Never copy more or less than required! You will lose points.

3. Sentence completion
* You are presented with the beginning of a sentence which you must complete in your own words, based on the text. NEVER copy full sentences from the text! Answer as required and make necessary changes (Iè s/he / weè they).
* Pay attention to punctuation ((סימני פיסוק, grammar (active/passive, positive/negative, synonyms) and spelling.
*NEVER start a new sentence.
* If the sentence begins with HOW, WHAT or WHY, don’t answer in a question form!

4. Open-ended questions
* Usually, you are presented with a WH-question with or without specific lines. Make sure you take your answer from the RIGHT place!
* your answer MUST be short, clear and to the point. It must be a sentence – SVO, gerund or infinite! (NO COMPLETE ANSWERS). Start with a CAPITAL LETTER.

5. Graphic organizers – charts or tables
* Graphic organizers require you to organize information from the text by filling in a table or a chart, such as sequence of events, cause & effect, advantages & disadvantages, generalizations & examples.
* The answers or stages given in the table or chart will show you how to write your answer – full sentences or phrases – form & content.
*Make sure you have a subject and a verb in your sentence. Pay attention to the sequence of tenses.

What You Need to Know!

What the Questions Test
1. Understand main ideas
* Most paragraphs contain a topic sentence which expresses the main idea in the text – first or last sentence. Examples or details are specific things so they can never be the main idea of a paragraph.
2. Follow the development of an argument
* Texts are written for a purpose, and so they follow certain logic. For example, expressing an opinion, discussing a controversial issue, explaining a process, describing a place, etc.
3. Understand different text types
* Eye catchers (see above) can help you decide on different text types, such as a letter, a newspaper article, an announcement, an interview, a report. Understanding different types of texts may help you find the necessary information more quickly.
4. Integrate information from the text
* In order to integrate various pieces of information from the text, you’ll have to understand relationship between them, such as cause & effect, compare & contrast, sequence.
* Usually, you are asked to integrate information in a graphic organizer.
5. Draw inferences
* Inference questions ask you to read between the lines. That is, to understand ideas which are not clearly stated in the text. Yet make sure that your answer is based on the text!
6. Identify the writer’s attitude, tone and purpose
* in order to identify the writer’s opinion, look for words or expressions that contain positive meaning – recommends, approves of, or negative meaning – objects to, criticizes, disapproves of.
* The tone of the text may be pessimistic, optimistic, humorous, sentimental, or persuasive. Look for words that indicate this tone.
7. Identify different points of view
* Don’t get confused between the writer’s opinion and other people’s points of view. Look for specific names or for phrases, such as according to or believe, some… others.
8. Use a dictionary
* When you look up a word in a dictionary,
Look at the base form – without ing, ed, er, est
Know the difference between noun, verb, adjective and adverb.
Look for the correct meaning according to context.

B.    Access to Information from a Spoken Text – Listening
General Tips

  1. The questions for the listening appear in your exam booklet. Read them BEFORE the broadcast begins to get a clue about the topic.
  2. Look up difficult words in the dictionary and write their meaning.
  3. The recording is about 4 minutes long, and it is heard twice.
  4. Pay attention to grammar!

What You Need to Know
Question Types
1. Multiple-choice

See the table above.
2. Fill-in
3. Sentence-completion
4. open-ended

C.    Written Presentation – Compositions
General Tips

  1. Devote about 30 minutes to writing.
  2. Make sure you understand the topic and the task (expressing an opinion, for and against, complaining, applying for a job, reporting, recommending, etc.) If irrelevant information is included, 10-13 points are deducted!
  3. Highlight key words (use your dictionary if necessary) to help you understand the topic and task.
  4. Write a few outlines – main ideas & supporting details – on the draft page ( אם   (טיוטה to organize your writing. (If you need an additional paper, make sure you put your sticker on it!)
  5. Write 120-140 words in 4 paragraphs.
    In formal letters, the addresses, date, formal opening and ending are not included in the word count.
  6. Leave an empty line between paragraphs.
  7. Clear handwriting!
  8. Short and clear sentences – not longer than 1½ lines.
  9. Structure – opening, body & conclusion:
    1st paragraph
    – present the topic you are going to write about. If you are required to present an opinion, make sure it is VERY clear.
    2nd & 3rd paragraphs – give explanations, descriptions, arguments, and examples that relate to your topic.
    4th paragraph – conclude by restating the introduction in different words, summarize your composition or present a solution.
  10. Pay attention to grammar. Make sure you use advanced language structures CORRECTLY.
  11. Pay attention to CAPITAL LETTERS, spelling and punctuation (סימני פיסוק).
  12. Use sentence connectors to show links between sentences and paragraphs.
    Do not write lists!
  13. Learn useful phrases and use them to impress the examiner.

How Your Writing is Marked
Content and Organization -
8 points
* Express yourself clearly. Make sure you answer the question as required.
* Write relevant and well organized information – include main ideas and examples.
Vocabulary – 8 points
* Use rich vocabulary – don’t repeat yourself! Use appropriate register – you don’t write to your friend, so don’t use slang or inappropriate words.
Language Use – 16 points
* Use basic and advanced language structures correctly (conditionals, perfect tenses, passive, reported speech, connectors, prepositions, etc.)
Mechanics – 8 points
* Good spelling.
* Capital letters – at the beginning of a sentence.
* Correct punctuation -  , : ?.
* Clear paragraphing – it is clear where a paragraph begins and where it ends. Short and clear sentences – don’t write run-ons!
What You Need to Know
Types of Writing
Structure of the 4 Paragraphs
A Formal Letter – letter of complaint, letter of application, letter to the editor, recommendation, request for information or suggestion
Useful phrases:
  • I wish to complain about…
  • I would like to express my dissatisfaction with…
  • Please look at this matter promptly
  • I hope the matter will be resolved as soon as possible
  • I would like to get a refund
  • I look forward to hearing from you in the near future
  • I’m writing with regard to your ad in… I would like to apply for this post
  • I enclose my CV and testimonials from…
  • Thank you for any consideration you have given this application
  • I would be glad to attend an interview at any time convenient to you
           I am looking forward to your reply
6 Elm Street
Tel Aviv
April 1, 2007

___________ (name of the company)
72 Herzel Street

 Dear sir,
1. Write your reason for writing the letter – to complain, to apply for a job, to recommend, to relate to an issue in the paper.
2. + 3. Give necessary details – each paragraph should deal with one aspect only!
4. Conclude by stating your expectations – to be compensated, to get the job, to see that something is done to improve the situation, etc.

Sincerely yours
Dan Brown

An Essay of Opinion
  1. Introduce the topic and express your opinion.
  2. First argument + an example.
  3. Second argument + an example.
      4.   Conclude by restating your
            opinion in different words.
For and Against
  1. Introduce the controversial topic.
  2. Present an argument for + an example.
  3. Present an argument against + an example.
4.   Conclude and present your
A Description of place or person
  1. Introduce what you are going to describe.
  2. Describe external appearance.
  3. Describe other qualities.
      4.   Conclude by saying what makes
            this special.
A Review of book, movie, performance or CD.
  1. Introduce the movie or book, its type and state the target audience.
  2. Describe the plot – without the ending!
  3. Describe the characters / actors.
4.State whether you recommend it or not.
To add points on the same topic
And, in addition to, moreover, besides, furthermore, also, too
To describe similarity
Similarly, likewise, in the same way
To express contrast
But, however, nevertheless, yet, still, although, even if, even though, in spite of, despite
To introduce opposing points
On the one hand… on the other hand, in contrast, contrary to, it can also be argued that, there are people who say that
To describe cause or reason
Because (of), since, due to, for this reason, that is why, one/another reason for… is…
To describe a result
So, therefore, consequently, thus, as a result (of),
To state a purpose
in order to, so that, so as to
To make general statements
In general, generally, on the whole
To give examples
For example, for instance, such as, like, particularly, including, in particular, especially, specifically
To describe reality
In fact, as a matter of fact, actually
To express personal opinions
In my opinion, I (strongly) believe/ think/ feel (that)
To list points
To begin with, in the first place, first of all, first/ firstly, secondly, thirdly, after that, then, next, finally
To conclude
In conclusion, to sum up, in short, to conclude
To show time
When, while, before, after, until, as soon as, by the time
To show sequence
First, at first, in the beginning, next, then, later, earlier, meanwhile, after that, afterwards, at last, finally, eventually, in the end

How your unseen is marked (if the content is correct!)

No. of Points per Question
F      +       G

  Spelling / punctuation
1 - 2
1 - 2
1 - 2
1 - 2
2 - 3
2 - 3
2 - 3
2 - 3
2 - 3
2 - 3