The Enemy - Pearl Buck


  1. presentation
  2. Ayelet Raz English - The Enemy
  3. story + questions
  4. The Enemy + explanations

THE ENEMY BY PEARL S BUCK

  POINTS TO REMEMBER

What is more important - loyalty to your country or saving a person's life no matter to which country they belog to?
- Story is set during World War II
- Japan is fighting America
- It is a story of conflict between fellow-feeling and loyalty
- Shown through the situation between Tom, the American prisoner and the Japanese couple,
Dr. Sadao and Hana

Characterization of Sadao
- Adedicated surgeon and doctor
- Anice human being
- Full of fellow, feeling, kindness for people in distress
- Sadao undergoes a conflict due to the prisoner's identity - Tom
- is an American
- Sadao is afraid of being called a traitor
- He is also prejudiced against the white man
- His goodness win in the end as he removes the bullet
- Risked his own life by sheltering an enemy.
- He is loyal to his country as well - informs the General
- The General agrees to have the prisoner killed by private
- assassins
- Undergoes conflict again-spends three restless nights
- Overcomes conflict- decides to help the white man escape
- Helps the soldier escape
- Couldn't understand why he saved the prisoner

Character Sketch of Hana
- Abalanced woman
- Affectionate
- Responsible - she washes the prisoner and treats him respectfully
- Dignified and graceful about servants leaving the house
- Kind and sympathetic towards the soldier
- Obeyed Sadao and helped him in carrying out the operation
- Maintains her calm, though she is extremely tense and fearful
- Becomes an anesthetist when the need arises
- Is a true human being

The American Soldier- Tom
- Flung out of the ocean
- Aprisoner of war-hardly 17
- Escaped but was shot at the back
- Suffered torture and hunger
- Wounded, bleeding, was in great pain, lay unconscious
- Needed medical aid
- Had strong will power
- At first he is afraid - later feels secure in the house of Japanese couple
- Full of gratitude towards Dr. Sadao

How Sadao and Hana help the soldier
- Sadao packed the wound with sea moss to stop bleeding
- Together both lifted the prisoner and laid him on a deeply matted floor of their father's bedroom
- Hana washed his wounds with steaming hot water
- Sadao operated on his body, pulled the bullet out
- Hana helped Sadao with anesthesia
- Both took care of his weak body
- Hana fed him with her own hands
- Later towards the end of the story help the prisoner to escape

Reaction of servants
- The servants did not like the idea of helping an enemy
- Yumi refused to wash a white man
- The gardener felt that Sadao should have allowed the soldier to die
- He said the sea and the gun would take revenge if Sadao saved the soldier
- The cook said that Sadao was proud of his skill and used it irresponsibly
- They left the house when the American prisoner was treated and nursed by Sadao and Hana

The General
- Selfish- thought of his own treatment
- Did not think of anyone else except himself
- Aruthless general-has private assassins
- Promised to send his assassins to kill and remove the body of the soldier
- Doesn't want the doctor to be arrested because he needs him
- Had faith in Sadao's skills as a doctor
- Careless - forgot to send assassins

How Sadao helps the American soldier escape
- Sadao put his boat with food and extra clothing
- Asked the soldier to row to an uninhabited island nearby
- Asked him to wait for a Korean fishing boat on the island
- Told him that he could catch fish but eat it raw
- Gave him his flashlight.
- Asked the soldier to signal him two flashes if his food ran out and one flash if he was alright
- Sadao gave him Japanese clothes and covered his hair with a black cloth

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

1. Mention instances which show that Sadao’s father had strong feelings for his
        motherland?
Ans.a).His father would never accept a daughter –in law her unless she had been pure in her race.
b)Everything in his room had been Japanese to please the old man, who would never in his own home sit on a chair or sleep in a foreign bed

2. How did Sadao and Hana establish the identity of the man washed ashore?
Ans. A)Through his face they came to know he was a white man.
b) They examined his battered cap closely and realised that he was a sailor from an American warship. The words ‘U.S Navy’ were written on the cap in almost faint lettering. They realised that he was an escaped prisoner of war.

3. Why didn’t Dr Sadao put the wounded man back in the sea even though he was his enemy?
Ans: Dr Sadao could not put the wounded man back in the sea even though he was an enemy because he was a Doctor and the foremost duty of a doctor is to save life. He knew the man would die if not tended medically. This would be against medical ethics. So, he rescued him to give medical treatment.

4.Why did Hanna hesitate to put the injured soldier on his deceased father in law’s bed?
Ans. A) Tom is extremely dirty.
         b) He is their enemy. Moreover father was true patriot.

5. Why did Sadao decide to treat the injured man?
According to Sadao if the man were whole he could turn him over to the police without difficulty as he was his enemy.  But since he was  wounded his professional  ethics could not allow him to let the man die.
They were not able to bring themselves to drop him back into the sea because of their compassionate and humane nature

6. “What was the reaction of the servants?
Ans. Mention reaction of gardener ,Yumi ,cook.

7. This man” he thought there is no reason under heaven why he should live.” What prompted Dr. Sadao to say this? What does he do   after this?
Ans.i)a) enemy was source of worry and vexation for doctor as harbouring him could lead him to arrest. So his treatment was an ultimate test of his patience. So he was going through mental conflict.
b)Wife nauseates during operation and he is unable to attend her. So ,became impatient and said the statement in question.
              ii)Unconsciously this thought made him ruthless and he proceeded swiftly. In his dream the man moaned but Sadao paid no heed except to mutter at him

8. What impression do you form of General Takima?
Ans. A)Brave and courageous : fought victorious battle in Manchuria
Ruthless, inhuman,cruel : beat his wife

9.What happened on the seventh day, after the doctor and his wife saved the wounded man?
Ans. Two things happened on the day the letter was typed. The cook, the gardener and Yumi had packed up their belongings and left together. Though the servants cried, Hana put up a brave front. The second thing that happened was the arrival of a messenger to tell Sadao that he had been called to the palace as the general was in pain again.

10.Why did servants leave Mr. Sadao’s house? (2008)
Ans. A)did not want to help Dr Sadao to save the enemy
to show their disapproval of his action

11. Hana’s fears on the messenger’s arrival proved false. How?
Ans. Hana thought servants had informed police authorities about their harbouring the enemy  and messenger had come to arrest them.But messenger cme to inform Sadao that General was in pain again and needed his care.

12.What did General tell Dr. Sadao when he heard about the prisoner war?
Ans.“Of course,” the General said weakly, “I understand
fully. But that is because, I once took a degree in Princeton.
So few Japanese have.”
“I care nothing for the man, Excellency,” Sadao said,
“but having operated on him with such success…”
“Yes, yes” the General said. “It only makes me feel you
more indispensable to me. Evidently you can save anyone
— you are so skilled.

13. Why did the general assure Dr. Sadao that he would not be arrested?
Sadao’s skill at operating on the prisoner with success, made the general believe more firmly that he was indispensable to him. He did not want to have him arrested because Sadao was the only person who he believe could save him if he had another of his attacks and required an operation.

14.Why do you think Sadao could not sleep properly after his meeting with the General?
a)Though he got agreed  with General plan but his conscience pricked him and heart reproached him for betraying his guest whom he had treated.
b) So remained perturbed and sleepless on account of fear of assasins killing enemy. Subconsciously wishes that man should survive.

15. Why couldn’t the General’s plan of eliminating the prisoner succeed?
General did not send assasins
Sadao helped the American to escape

16.How did Sadao help the prisoner to escape?(2008)
Sadao decided to help the American soldier to escape to safety. He told him to go to an island nearby and wait for a Korean fishing boat to pass by. He even gave him a boat, some food and bottled water. He kept two quilts for him and gave him clear instructions so that this plan would not fail.

17. Why did Sadao feel that the General was in the palm of his hand?
Sadao fulfilled his   duty as a patriot by informing general about the enemy and acceding to his plan. But General did not keep his promise of sending assassins. So because of General carelessness the enemy escaped.

18. What impression do you form of the prisoner?
Extraordinary vitality as braves bullet ,rocks and waves
Even in his unconscious state ,has indomitable will
Thankfully acknowledge effort made by Sadaos in saving him

19.What are the two moral implications on which the whole story is built upon ?
. ‘The Enemy’ gives the message that humanism transcends all man made prejudices and barriers. Here Dr Sadao upholds the ethics of medical profession in treating an enemy. So doctor must treat patient without considering his identity. The story is a great lesson of peace, love, sympathy, fellow feeling and humanism.


20. ‘‘But Sadao searching the spot of black in the twilight sea that night, had his reward’’. What was the reward?
The “reward” was the escape of the enemy-Dr. Sadao searched the spot of black in the twilight sea that night- see if the man was still there-but there was no light. Obviously the man had gone- The escape of the prisoner was his reward.

21.What message does “The Enemy” give?
The massage is clear-great lesson of humanism. Dr. Sadao by nursing his country’s enemy proves true to his professional ethics.

Q22.How did Dr. Sadao rise above narrow prejudices of race & country to human being in need?
Dr. Sadao- a renowned Japanese surgeon- believed in professional loyalty & human kindness- saw  an American wounded soldier in a terrible condition on beach in front of his house-took him to his house with the help of his wife Hana-successfully removed the bullet-nursed him back to his life-thus rose above racialism.
As a patriot, reported the prisoner’s presence at his house to the Army General. The general decided to have him killed-he grew restless to see him & finally decided to help him to escape form his house-gave him boats & instructed him how he could safely escape.

Q23.Do you think the doctor’s final solution to the problem was the best possible one in the circumstances?
It is the best possible option-general had promised him that he would get the soldier quietly killed through his private assassins-but he forgot to get rid of- Dr. Sadao could do nothing-he wanted to get rid of the wounded soldier-as the servants had left the house-& news could be spread-so he devised his own plan to get the soldier off to the nearby island-managed his boat for the soldier & instructed him. The white soldier took leave of him & followed his instruction & managed to escape safely. Thus all proves that that was the only way out for Dr. Sadao to the problem.

Q24. Dr Sadao was compelled by duty as a doctor to help the enemy soldier. What made Hana, his wife, sympathetic to him in the face of open defiance from the domestic staff?  

Q25. How would you explain the reluctance of the soldier to leave the shelter of the doctor’s home even when he knew he couldn’t stay there without risk to the doctor and himself?

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. “Prejudices are obstacles in smooth interaction among human beings” In the light of the lesson elaborate the statement.
Ans.a) Sadao was prejudiced towards Americans  (p-46, last para)
b) Servants disapproved of harbouring enemy
c) Mention instances where Sadao and Hana express hatred towards Tom

2.Describe how Pearl S. Buck’s story, The Enemy shows that basic human goodness overpowers all other factors.(2009)

3. Why did Dr. Sadao let the wounded American soldier escape? Explain highlighting the character of Dr. Sadao? (2008)
Ans. Humanitarian consideration ,professional ethics
      As already spent 3 sleepless nights so could not bear strain of waiting for assassins anymore

4. Dr Sadao’s instinctive affinity transcends national and cultural prejudices and barriers. Discuss.
As a young boy he obeyed his father and honoured the fact that his education was his father’s chief concern.
Sadao was skilful Japanese surgeon who lived in Japan during World War II.
Together with his wife Hana, and the servants, Sadao had a comfortable life.
Earlier, he had several years in the United states during medical school.
While in the United States, Sadao experienced cultural prejudice and bias first hand. Even though he did have a positive experience including that of a teacher and landlady Americans did.
Is a dutiful son, an excellent husbandand a thorough professional- believes that it is a “cardinal  sin” on part of a surgeon not to know the human body completely
Faces a dilemma whether to help the POW or to assert loyalty to the country and finally gives in to the call of humanity.
His instinctive affinity transcends cultural and national prejudices and barriers.

5.. Sadao and Hana were true patriots and human beings. Justify with reference to the story.
Both full of patriotism, proud of Japan and its culture.
Hated Americans, found them repulsive, full of prejudices against Japanese.
Both Sadao and Hana considered humanity above patriotism
As a doctor, he could not leave his patient in distress, could not stop himself from saving the life of the wounded American soldier.
Both risked their lives and reputation by helping and sheltering the soldier
Hana was equally compassionate- washed the soldier’s wounds herself when Yumi refused.
Considered every soldier as a human being in distress.
Did not hand him over to police initially as the soldier was weak and could die.
Did not want to keep the American soldier when he fully recovered.
Sadao told the General about the soldier. He had no objection if the soldier was killed by the assassins- but was ill-at ease and worried that harm may come to him- shows that he is essentially kind.
Helped the soldier to escape, gave him food, clothes and water on his boat.
Sadao found relief when thwe soldier did not give any signal through his flash light as he was safe.
Saved the soldier as true human beings.
Wanted to get rid of him as true patriots.

6.. There are moments in life when we have to make hard choice between our role as private individuals & as citizens with a sense of national loyalty. Discuss with reference to the story.
Suggested Answer / Value Points- Dr. Sadao encounters with the dilemma-to live as private individual whose & moral ethical responsibility is to save the soldier & second is a Japanese to make the soldier arrest.
So as a doctor and as an individual his first job is to save man-takes ethical responsibility, he risks his life, fame & social status- takes him to his house and makes efforts to save him.
But his other side-sense of patriotism & nationalism also involves a report to police, takes the general in confidence, & plans to make him killed but later on again helps the soldier in escaping off. Thus Dr. Sadao personality is displayed.  

7. While hatred against a member of the enemy race is justifiable, especially during wartime, what makes a human being rise above narrow prejudices. Answer with reference to ‘The Enemy
• The feeling of hatred for enemy country is created by the system/ government
• People are made to hate each other
• It is considered to be patriotic/ nationalistic
• Personally knowing or not knowing has no meaning in such cases.
• There are people who rise above such petty thoughts
• Like doctor Sadao- for him saving the patient was most important
• As a doctor that was his first duty-the sick, injured needed attention and the
country to which the patient belongs did not matter to him.
Sadaos rose above narrow prejudice because: Proessional ethics , humanitarian considerations  ,sensitivity
-Having been himself subjected to hatred and indifference in America, he does not want to follow a ‘tit for tat policy’.

Other questions

1.What did Dr. Sadao’s father tell him showing the islands visible from seashore?(p-24 ,last 5 lines, “Those islands..............make it”)
2. What was his father’s chief concern?(p-25,1st para , lines 4-7)
3. Why was Sadao not sent abroad with the troops?(2009)(p-25 , 1st para ,     
“because he was perfecting..........in Japan”
4..Why didn’t Dr. Sadao show his interest in Hanna before knowing that she was a Japanese? (p-25 , 3rd para, “He had met Hana...........pure in her race)
5.Why did Dr. Sadao hesitate to go to the American professor’s house?
(rooms were so small , food so bad , professor’s wife –voluble)
6.What did they think would be the best & the kindest thing to do for the injured man? Why? (2008) (p-28 ,para2-5 ,”The best thing ..................he would certainly die”
7.Why did they think of handing over the man to the police?(p-29 ,1st para
8.How did the gardener react when Dr. Sadao told him about the wounded American soldier? (2009)(p-30 , 3rd&2nd last para , “The two servants ........revenge on us”
9.How did Yumi react when Hana told her to wash the soldier?(2008)(p-31, 2nd-6th para ,”When she saw him ..........not my business”)
10.What thoughts came to Hanna’s mind when she was washing the wounds of the soldier?(page 31 , last 3 lines)
11.How did Hana react to the servants’ leaving the house? (p-38 , 3rd para-On the 7th day)
12.What did general decide to do with enemy?
OR
    What plan did the General suggest to get rid of the prisoner?(2008)(p-41  
          ,para-3-5, “ It would be best .........remove the body”)

Long Answer type Questions :
 1.Give an account of the efforts made by Dr. Sadao and Hana to save the life of the injured man.
2.Describe the difficulties faced by Dr. Sadao when he decided to help the enemy soldier.(2009)
3. Discuss the reaction of the servants to the efforts made by Sadao and Hana to save American’s life.




Information about the author

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Background information, themes 


 

Summary along with questions and answers



Gist along with questions and answers



PPT 



Video

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THE ENEMY


Moed Bet 2014 F Exam

 LOTS

  1. What does Sadao learn about from his father? He learns about (–).
(i) American culture
 (ii) medicine
 (iii) army life
 (iv) Japanese values
 (5 points)
  1. At his first meeting with Sadao the General says, “Then certainly I can allow nothing to happen to you”. Why does he say this?  (5 points)
  2. What is Hana’s moral dilemma? Give information from the story to support your answer. (10 points)

HOTS

Sadao has mixed feelings about Americans. Discuss, using information from the story. (15 points)

ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS

  1. Compare and contrast the attitudes of the POW and Sadao towards each other. Give information from the story to support your answer.   (8 points)
  2. What is the author trying to teach us about her idea of an enemy? Give information from the story to support your answer.  (7 points)


Winter 2014 F Exam

BRIDGING

  1. “I… am interested in people and their growth. My interest leads me to increase my knowledge of people, and this makes me believe in the common goodness of mankind. I believe that the normal human heart is born good. It neither wishes to be killed, nor to kill.” – Pearl Buck in a radio broadcast in 1951. Make a connection  between the above quote and the story. Support your answer  with information from the story.


Moed Bet 2013 F Exam

 BRIDGING

  1. In 1929 a large group of nations agreed on certain standards for how to treat prisoners of war (POWs). Among other things, they said they should receive food, clothing, a place to live and medical care. During the Second World War, the Japanese ignored these agreements and were extremely cruel to prisoners of war. Make a connection between the above description and the story. Support your answer with information from the story.


Summer 2013 F Exam

 LOTS

  1. When Sadao and his wife first find the white man why do they decide not to throw him back into the sea? (5 points)

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